Reporter: Yuko Teshima
My name is Yuko Teshima. I am a member of JC-GSHR office.
The other day, I presented my master's research at NUTRITION 2020, an international conference sponsored by the American Society for Nutrition. This conference was scheduled to be held in Seattle, the USA in June of this year, but due to the influence of Covid-19, it was suddenly held online.
Secondary data analysis was conducted in 58 low- and middle-income countries between 2006 and 2018, comprising 692,704 children under five years old by using the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). I estimated the changes in the dual burden of malnutrition at the individual level and its socioeconomic inequality index.
The double burden of malnutrition (DBM) is a major public health problem in the world. DBM refers to the situation where undernutrition and overnutrition are present in the same place. After "Nutrition Transition" was first proposed in 1993, the global nutrition situation has been problematic and many low- and middle-income countries focused on overnutrition and undernutrition.
According to a policy brief of the World Health Organization (WHO), DBM can manifest at three levels. The first level is the population level. The second one is the household level. And the last one is the individual level, which is my research target population.
I am currently working hard to submit this paper.
You can see the abstract here.
Reporter: Yuko Noguchi
My name is Yuko Noguchi. I am a member of JC-GSHR office.
I took part in internship program in Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) Thailand Office in February 2020. In Thailand, there are three institutions under the Department of Empowerment of Person with Disabilities that accept children aged 7 to 18 with intellectual disabilities. Taking this opportunity, I visited two out of these three institutions, a self-help group, Asia Pacific Development Center on Disability (APCD) and Rajanukul Institute to learn about the state of people with intellectual disabilities including children with intellectual disabilities living in institutions in Thailand.
Through interviews to staffs working in institutions, I found that about half of residents were aged over 18 years due to no place to go to although nearly 40% of them had capability of doing daily living activity themselves. The Thai government enact laws to requires private company and public organization to hire one person with disability in every 100 employees. However, few chances of getting job to residents in institution for intellectual disability. The difficulty of receiving social support and getting hired in a company may prevent them from leaving the institution and living in the society.
Reporter: Fumiko Shibuya
I am Fumiko Shibuya, a master's degree student from The University of Ryukyu and a member of JC-GSHR.
I worked at a Catholic girls’ school in Burkina Faso as a JICA volunteer. I taught sexuality education (menstruation, sex infection etc.) and malaria prevention to the students with my counterpart teacher. Also, I taught nutrition to keep weight and washing hands to prevent infections. I made health materials for health lecture with my counterpart to teach by his self and did hand health room manage over to headteacher.
I think that It was difficult to teach sexuality education in developing countries because of the strong background culture, society, and religion. There were young pregnancy and sex infections. However, I couldn’t teach enough to prevent these accompanied by these backgrounds. In such cases, I think it is essential to teach preventive education to students and improve the school health system.
I am going to research sexuality education in developing countries at The University of Ryukyu. Through my research, I would like to improve the school health system by making some issues and my questions clear.
The research conducted in 2019 was published as a paper.
Gopali, RS., Maharjan, B., Kigawa, M.. (2020). Expert Consensus on the Essential Preventive Knowledge of Tuberculosis for High School Students, Kathmandu, Nepal. Biomed J Sci & Tech Res 26(2), 19849-19857. BJSTR. MS.ID.004332. DOI: 10.26717/BJSTR.2020.26.004332
Nepal is one of the high TB prevalent countries in the world. It has various problem about TB control such as preventive education, medical examination, treatment and their maintenance of motivation. On the other hand, it is known that students can play a major role in promoting health education in the community. Therefore, I thought that high school students could play a similar role in TB control. However, the priority of education items for TB control varies depending on the specialized area of the experts involved. In addition, high school students need to acquire various knowledge, and knowledge of tuberculosis, which is only one item of health education that is not directly related to grades, may be a low priority for them. Therefore, this study was conducted to collect opinions on priorities of experts in various fields.
In the future, based on the knowledge obtained here, we would like to study teaching materials and measures for disseminating knowledge.
Author：Rie Ogasawara（Osaka University UNESCO-Chair） & Elli Sugita（Department of Human Sciences, Osaka University）
JC-GSHR became a partner organization of the Osaka University UNESCO Chair “Global Health and Education.” We are building a network of experts on school health in Asia. Professor Jun Kobayashi, the chairman of JC-GSHR, was appointed as a member of the steering committee for the Osaka University UNESCO Chair. The kick-off symposium for the Osaka University UNESCO Chair was held on May 10th, 2019, at the Suita campus of Osaka University where many of the JC-GSHR members, including Professor Kobayashi, attended.
JC-GSHR/Osaka University UNESCO Chair are conducting a joint research project on school health in Asian countries. We have so far conducted two international workshops on May 10th~11th and September 16th, 2019 in Osaka, inviting experts from the Philippines, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Nepal, Korea, China, and Japan. At the workshops, we shared information on school health policies and implementations from each country, and discussed the differences and similarities in their approaches.
This research is on-going through the collaboration of JC-GSHR members and their counterparts in each country.
※More on the Osaka University UNESCO Chair: http://ou-unescochair-ghe.org/en/
Kick-off Symposium for Osaka University UNESCO Chair on May 10th, 2019
Workshop on School Health with the Experts from Asian Countries
Reporting day: 2020/03/13
Reporter: Takeshi Akiyama (Associate Professor, Department of Health Science, Nagano College of Nursing)
We published an article on the implementation and effect of the Kenyan school health program among primary schools (https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/daaa005). This project was one of the activities of the JICA Partnership Program, which was implemented by Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University between 2012 and 2017, with the cooperation of Kenya Medical Research Institute, the Ministry of Education, and the Ministry of Health of Kenya. The project put the country’s school health program into operation among the primary schools around Mbita town, Western Kenya. The article reported the improvement among schools between the years 2013 and 2016. Furthermore, we examine a significant relationship between the students’ academic performance and the situation of school health.
Reporting day: 2020/03/07
Reporter: Rachana Manandhar Shrestha
(Visiting scientists of Department of Community and Global health, The University of Tokyo, and Project Consultant of School and Home garden Project)
Consumption of junk food is increasing among school-aged children. Scientific studies have shown that school-aged children are more likely to be fascinated by sudden exposure to an advertisement, which consequently increases their junk food intake. Furthermore, unhealthy food marketing is seen concentrated around school areas, which increased the availability of junk foods for school children and the communities around.
Photos: Snacks shops and school children around school premises
School gardens have become a widely used approach to influence children’s food knowledge, preferences and choices in low- and high-income countries alike. However, evidence indicates that such programs are more effective at influencing food knowledge and preferences than actual food choices. This may be either because school gardens insufficiently influence the food behavior of parents or because healthy food items are not always available in children’s homes. Therefore, School and home garden project entitled ‘Nudging children toward healthier food choices: An experiment combining school and home gardens’ was conducted by World Vegetable Center, Thailand in collaboration with Nepal Government in 30 schools of Sindhupalchok district in Nepal. ＊The project was a one-year cluster randomized controlled trial with 15 treatment and 15 control schools and a matched sample of 900 schoolchildren (aged 8-12) and their caregivers. The project aimed to influence food choice of school children and their parents by providing combination of hands-on experience with gardening and nutritional education to teach school children and their parents. The project nudged school children and their households about how to grow, appreciate and like healthy foods such as fruit and vegetables, which tend to be under-consumed. Data were collected from children and caregivers before and after the intervention during the 2018-2019 school year. The results from the study revealed that nudging children toward healthier food choices through school gardens requires targeting children as well as their caregivers.
Photos: School students and a parent working in their school garden and home garden
Reporter: Akihiro Nishio (Health Administration Center, Gifu University)
In collaboration with the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization SEAMEO), we have developed a basic program of school mental health that can be used in ASEAN countries. As a preliminary action, in March 2019 in Bangkok, Thailand, school mental health officials from nine ASEAN countries gathered to hold a workshop on school mental health. The results were summarized by the four point of views; (1) legal system, (2) school service system, (3) training system for teachers (4) education for students, on the mental health and published as current situation and comparison of school mental health in ASEAN countries. In the workshops, as a minimum standard for school mental health, the following topics were needed; (1) mental health education for students (also serving as teacher training), (2) establishment of coordination system between community mental health resources and schools, and (3) simple tool for evaluation of children's mental health. Therefore, in order to realize (1), we created modules for mental health education for elementary school students, junior high school students, and high school students, and in cooperation with the Ministry of Education of the Philippines. From September 2019, in Pampanga Province in the Philippines, local teachers used it. A feedback session was held on December 3 and 4, receiving comments from teachers, and the teaching modules were revised to make them easier to use. The revised modules were provided to the Philippine Ministry of Education. It will be published as official modules of the Philippines in the summer of 2021, after being approved by the Philippine government.
A conference was held for revising an Ecohealth education textbook and developing a teacher’s guidebook at the Faculty of Education of the National University of Laos (NUOL) in Vientiane Capital for six days from December 23 to 28, 2019. Ecohealth education is a health concept that aims to achieve both socio-economic development and health of the ecosystem and people. Actually, a project has been implemented to introduce and disseminate Ecohealth education in Teacher Training Institutions (TTIs) in Laos with the support of the Ministry of education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). Members of JC-GSHR, namely, Prof. Asakura (Tokyo Gakugei University), Prof. Kokudo (Kobe University) and Asso. Prof. Sachi (Shinshu University), are involved in the project.At the end of 2019, Ecohealth education was already introduced in TTIs as a part of the formal curriculum. Meanwhile, the first edition of the Ecohealth education textbook was published in September 2018, and then, a series of meetings have been held since June 2019 to improve the quality of the textbook and develop a teacher’s guidebook in response to the needs of TTI teachers. Teachers of NUOL and TTCs have participated in the meetings as well as Japan Overseas Cooperation Volunteers who are working with the teachers in Laos. They have conducted discussions based on the practice in each TTI to develop educational content appropriate to the context in Laos. (Reported by Shiho SANO working in Savannakhet Teacher Training College)
We are working about TB education for high school students in the Kathmandu valley of Nepal with local TB NGO. In 2019, a consensus survey was conducted by school health teachers, community TB volunteers, the staff of DOTs clinic, and district TB officers on “knowledge that high school students should know to prevent tuberculosis in the community “. Now, we are proceeding with the publication of the results.
(By Kigawa, Mika)